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Ultimativer Leitfaden für Loftbleche

Metallbiegen

Geschätzte Lesezeit: 31 Protokoll

Sheet metal lofting is generally carried out on the lofting workbench. Before lofting, you should be familiar with the drawing and check whether the dimensions of each part of the drawing are correct. If there is no problem, you can prepare the marking tool for sheet metal loft operation.

Blech lofting operation steps

  • The reading of drawings is an important process to have a comprehensive understanding of the parts to be made. According to the principle of orthographic projection, read the content of the construction drawing (including the shape, size, technical requirements and content of the title bar of the parts), through the comprehensive analysis of the drawing, imagine the position, size and shape of various parts in the space.
  • Preparation the measuring tools and tools used for lofting must perform specific operations during lofting, marking the center line, contour line, positioning line, etc. In addition to clear lines, the most important thing is to ensure the accuracy of the size. In the lofting operation, in order to ensure the accuracy of the various dimensions of the parts and improve the work efficiency, it is necessary to master the geometric drawing of various basic figures and use measuring tools and tools correctly. Generally, the measuring tools and tools required for lofting of workpieces include steel straightedge, tape measure, disk ruler and drawing needle, as well as compasses, ground rules, powder line, hammer, sample punch, etc. If necessary, brushes and paints should be prepared for color draw patterns.
  • Selection of lofting datum. Lofting datum refers to the starting point and datum line when staking out. Since parts have dimensions in three directions: length, width, and height, each direction must have at least one datum. Regarding the determination of the datum, the symmetry plane, the bottom surface, the important end surface and the axis of the slewing body can generally be selected. Normally, the lofting reference can be selected according to the following 3 types.
  1. Take the central axis of symmetry as the reference.
  2. Take two mutually perpendicular planes (or lines) as the reference.
  3. Take a plane and a center line as the reference.

The basic method of sheet metal lofting

The method of sheet metal lofting is generally: the direct lofting method using the scoring tool to directly scribe the lofting and the scoring lofting method by using the lofting template. The selection of the lofting method should be done after familiarizing with the drawing, understanding the structural characteristics of the workpiece, the production batch size and the assembly technical requirements and other conditions. Generally, the marking template should be made for the components with higher assembly connection requirements or mass production.

The marking template can be processed by CNC laser cutting, punch machine, wire cutting, etc. According to the production equipment of the enterprise, or it can be cut manually and then trimmed or milled.

For larger size samples, the template is prone to deformation, which affects the accuracy of lofting and is inconvenient to use. In order to ensure the convenience and accuracy of the template, the template can be flat and upward (not exceeding the shape) by riveting or screwing appropriate vertical ribs, such as small angle steel, and adding handles at appropriate positions. But it should be noted that the stiffening ribs and handles are not allowed to be connected by welding to prevent deformation of the template.

Since the Platten-Lofting is only drawn on the plane, the lofting template used is mostly a flat structure, which is relatively simple, and the profile has a certain cross-sectional shape, so the lofting is more complicated and requires some special tools. Specific methods of operation.

  • 90° angle ruler , a type of 90° angle ruler formed by a thick ruler and a thin ruler at a right angle. When setting out the profile, use this 90″ square ruler to draw a straight line perpendicular to the edge of the profile on the profile, as shown in the below figure
Lofting using a 90° angle ruler
Lofting using a 90° angle ruler
  • Straight-line gauge , the straight-line gauge is composed of a gauge blade and a gauge seat. It is a special tool for profile lofting. Among them, the tool steel for the gauge blade is made by forging, quenching and sharpening. The straight line gauge is mainly used to draw the center line of the processed hole on the profile, as shown in the figure.
Lofting using a straight line gauge
Lofting using a straight line gauge
  • Sample bar card , the sample bar card is made of thin steel plate. When the sample rod is long, hang the sample rod on the profile with a sample rod clip to prevent the bending of the sample rod from affecting the accuracy of the lofting, as shown in the below figure.
Lofting using sample bar cards
Lofting using sample bar cards
  • Scribing template , when the workpiece has various end shapes, in order to make lofting accurate and fast, prepare the corresponding end shape scribing template before lofting, as shown in the figure.
Examples of marking samples of various steel profiles
Examples of marking samples of various steel profiles

The square holes and rolled flanging on the template are for convenient hand-holding when in use, which is conducive to the scribing operation.

Precautions for sheet metal lofting operation

  • Choose the benchmark for lofting when setting out the drawing, a rule must be followed when drawing lines—start from the benchmark. On the design drawing, the datum used to determine the position of other points, lines and surfaces is called the design datum. When setting out, the design basis of the pattern is usually selected as the basis of setting out.
  • Lofting of plane graphics can be done directly on the blank, but when lofting, it must be combined with the use and processing method of the parts, and after the lofting datum is selected, the lofting can be carried out. The following figure shows the lofting sequence of steel reinforced ribs. From the analysis of the part shape and actual application situation shown in the drawing, combined with the design basis for judging the drawing, the AOB section of the contour line is obviously the basis for lofting.

The sheet metal lofting steps are as follows :

  1. Draw the lofting baseline AO⊥AB, see the figure;
  2. Cut AO=450 mm on AO, and OB=300 mm on OB. Make the vertical line of AO through point A and cut AD=100 mm; make the vertical line of OB through point B and cut BC=100 mm, see the figure;
  3. Connect the CD to complete the lofting of the part.
Lofting example of reinforced ribs
Lofting example of reinforced ribs
  • Lofting of assembly datum , it is usually marked with a stone pen on the working platform. When the actual sample drawing is used for a long time or is repeatedly used, the sample can be printed on the datum point, the scribe line and the important contour line punch your eyes so that you can redraw when you are unclear.

The lofting of the assembly datum is also to determine the design datum of the drawing first, make the lofting datum, and then draw the line in the order of first outside then inside, first big and then small.

The figure below is a drawing of a component base, and its lofting sequence is shown in Figures (b) ~ (d). The base is composed of channel steel. From the dimensions and characteristics of the drawing, the outline edge and horizontal center line of the right frame are design basis and lofting basis of the drawing. Such components are often assembled using ground-like assembly methods. That is, the actual sample of the component is drawn on the platform, and then the channel steel parts are assembled according to the contour line and the joint position.

The sheet metal lofting steps are as follows :

  1. Draw the outline edge of the right frame and the horizontal center line perpendicular to it as a reference for lofting, and draw the outer outline of the box based on this reference.
  2. Using the outline edge of the right frame and the horizontal center line as the reference, draw the position of each channel in the frame, as shown in the figure.
  3. Draw the direction of the channel steel, draw a clear handover relationship of all handover positions, that is, complete the lofting of the assembly datum, see the figure below.
Lofting of channel steel base
Lofting of channel steel base
  • Ensure the accuracy of lofting The accuracy of lofting should be guaranteed, otherwise it will directly affect the product quality. This requires maintaining the accuracy of the measuring tools used, and regularly checking the accuracy of the measuring tools in accordance with the regulations. At the same time, the measuring tools of the corresponding accuracy level should be selected according to the different accuracy requirements of the products. Before the construction of important components with high quality requirements, the accuracy of the measuring tools must be inspected. For the generally required processing parts, the size tolerance of the general marking can be carried out as required by the table 1-1.

Table 1-1 Dimensional tolerance of marking

GrößennameToleranzGrößennameToleranz
Tolerance of center distance between two adjacent holes
Tolerance of distance between plate and center line of adjacent hole
Tolerance of center distance between sample hole and adjacent hole
±0,5

±0.1

±0,5
Tolerance of overall dimension of components
Tolerance of center distance between two holes at both ends
±1,0

±1,0

Section steel (the most used in production is mainly angle steel and channel steel) cut shape of the bent part directly affects the bending quality of the section steel. The cut is usually drawn according to the drawing requirements and the actual sample is drawn, and then the sample number is used or the ruler is directly applied to the workpiece. Numbering materials are performed on the upper part, and finally according to the processing requirements of the bent part, the cuts are processed by punching, cutting or milling.

Angle steel bending incision shape and material length

The cutting of angle steel bending incision is generally carried out on site, and it mainly has several forms such as internal bending and external bending. The calculation of the curved incision shape and material length mainly includes the following contents.

  • Angle steel bends inwardly at any angle and external sharp corners. The figure shows the cut and material length when the angle steel is bent inwardly at an acute, right, and arbitrary angle. The left figure shows the shape and size of the workpiece after it is formed, and the right shows the cut shape and length of the material.
Angle steel inward bending of various angles and material length and cut shape
Angle steel inward bending of various angles and material length and cut shape
  • Inside-bending 90°external fillet of angle steel. The following figure shows the inward-bending 90° external fillet of angle steel, in which: Figure (a) shows the incision on the 45° angular line; Figure (b) shows the incision on the 45° angular line Shape and material length; Figure (c) shows the incision on the right-angle sideline; Figure (d) shows the incision shape and material length on the right-angle sideline.

The calculation formula for the arc length c of the curved surface center in the figure is :

c=π(R+d/2)/ 2

c——the arc length of the central layer of the curved surface, mm;
R——the radius of the inner arc, mm;
d—–The thickness of the angle steel, mm.

The length of the external corner material and the shape of the incision when the corner is bent inwardly at 90°

The length of the external corner material and the shape of the incision when the corner is bent inwardly at 90°
  • Various frame shapes of angle steel inward bending . The figure shows various frame shapes of angle steel inward bending, among which, figure (a) is the cut shape and material length when the angle steel is inwardly bent rectangular frame; figure (b) is the angle steel inwardly bent and outer rounded corner The cut shape and material length of the rectangular frame; and Figure (c) is the cut shape and material length of the trapezoidal frame when the angle steel is bent inward.

The calculation formula for dimension c in the figure is :

c=π(e – t/2)/ 2
The material length and cut shape of various frame shapes of angle steel inward bending
The material length and cut shape of various frame shapes of angle steel inward bending

Channel steel bending incision shape and material length

Like angle steel bending, channel steel mainly has several forms such as internal bending and external bending. The calculation of the curved incision shape and material length mainly includes the following contents.

  • Channel steel flat bending arbitrary corner fillet cut shape .The figure shows the channel steel flat bending arbitrary corner fillet cut shape. The key to the number of materials is to calculate the length of the arc c.

The calculation formula is :

c= π α(h-t/2) / 180°

c—-The arc length of the center of the curved facade, mm;
h—-Channel steel width, mm;
t—-Thickness of wing plate, mm;
α—- Bending angle, (°);

Channel steel flat bend arbitrary corner fillet length and cut shape
Channel steel flat bend arbitrary corner fillet length and cut shape
  • Channel steel side bend right-angle rectangular frame .The figure shows the channel steel cut side bends 4 right angles to form a rectangular frame. Figure (a) is the workpiece forming drawing, and Figure (b) is the material length and cut shape drawing (only in the figure) Show half length).
Channel steel side bend right-angle rectangular frame material length and cut shape
Channel steel side bend right-angle rectangular frame material length and cut shape
  • Channel steel side bending rounded rectangular frame .The figure shows the material length and cut shape of the channel steel cut side bend rounded rectangular frame; Figure (b) shows the material length and cut shape of the channel steel flat bend with 90° round corners.

The calculation formula for dimension c in the figure is :

Channel steel side bend rounded rectangular frame material length and cut shape
Channel steel side bend rounded rectangular frame material length and cut shape

Basic principles of sheet metal lofting and making-off

Lofting should carry out the basic principle of reasonable use of materials and maximal utilization of raw materials. Under the premise of technology permission, the application of reasonable lofting method, carefully budget to arrange the position of the workpiece in the material, so that the material is fully utilized. Specific methods to improve the utilization rate of materials are as follows.

  • The centralized nesting lofting method of the plate is to gather the workpieces of the same thickness but different shapes and sizes together for lofting and cutting. The specific method is: lay all the workpiece templates of the same specification and material on the steel plate, and discharge the materials according to the principle of from large to small, and from more to least. Make overall arrangements and collocation to make full use of raw materials.
  • Plank layout nesting lofting method. When the number of lofting workpiece is more, in order to make the lofting reasonable, to carefully arrange the position of the workpiece graph. One shape of the workpiece can be used for layout, and several different shapes of the workpiece can be used for nesting.

If one of the workpieces is used for nesting alone, and the utilization rate of the material is not high, two types of workpieces should be considered for nesting to maximize the use of raw materials. However, it should be noted that while considering the improvement of material utilization, the improvement of processing technology and production efficiency after the layout of the plate should also be fully analyzed.

  • The statistical calculation lofting method of profile. When the length of the shaped workpiece is inconsistent, quantity is not unified, and raw materials are the same, can be used to conclude all the same specification material artifacts together, from long to short and the number of artifacts to undertake collocation method for layout, every root materials can get reasonable use, the first statistical arrangement, lofting method again, is the profile of statistical calculation lofting.

The profile lofting generally adopts this statistical calculation method. When lofting, the profile is placed neatly, according to the pre-calculated order, from one end of the profile side by side, which can improve the work efficiency, but also can be very convenient to grasp the number. The order of marking is usually to draw long profiles first, then short profiles.

Key points of layout operation

For the production of large and complex components, it is often necessary to divide the product into sections and pieces. After assembling, the welding method can be used to form the product. In order to ensure the quality of the splicing, how to reasonably divide it is the key to layout.

The so-called layout refers to the reasonable arrangement of welds, the relative position of parts and the shape of each sheet, according to the structural shape, welding and other requirements of the expanded drawing of the processed component and the specifications and dimensions of the existing steel plate on the expanded drawing. Working process of size and numbering. The layout work is the key work to ensure product quality and rational use of materials. It is often not determined once, and needs to be adjusted and compared many times to obtain a more reasonable layout chart. The following takes the discharging of a large cylindrical member cylinder as an example to describe the main points of the discharging operation.

The principle of layout

  1. According to the design requirements, the size of the existing material specifications and the capacity of processing equipment, to determine the size of the barrel.
  2. Reasonable arrangement of welds to reduce welding stress and avoid large deformation after welding. The main aspects can be considered from the following aspects: in the case of meeting the design requirements, as far as possible to reduce the weld, especially longitudinal weld; No special requirements, welding seam arrangement should be uniform and symmetrical, to avoid weld concentration; The circumferential weld shall be perpendicular to the axis, and the longitudinal weld shall be parallel to the axis. Avoid cross welds.
  3. Machining allowance, counterpoint clearance and welding shrinkage should be considered. There are the following requirements for discharging the cylinder of the tower and the pressure vessel: the shortest length of the cylinder. For the cylinder section made of carbon steel and low alloy steel, not less than 300mm; The cylinder section made of stainless steel is not less than 200m; The length of each steel plate shall not be less than 800mm; Avoid cross weld, such as the use of cross weld butt, the longitudinal seam on the adjacent cylinder section should be positive; When the T-shaped weld is used, the distance between the longitudinal weld on the adjacent joint or the end of the head weld and the longitudinal weld of the adjacent joint should be greater than 3 times the wall thickness, and not less than 100mm; The distance between the parts in the cylinder and the welding seam of the cylinder body should not be less than the thickness of the cylinder wall, and not less than 50mm. The welding seam of the container opening and its strengthening plate must be staggered with the welding seam of the shell for more than 50mm; The girth weld of the horizontal vessel should be located outside the bearing surface of the support. The longitudinal weld shall be located outside the range of 140° on the lower part of the shell; The distance between the welding edge of the support and the cylinder and the circumferential welding seam of the shell should be greater than 4 times the wall thickness, and not less than 10mm, as shown in the figure.
Position relationship between support and welding seam of cylinder
Position relationship between support and welding seam of cylinder

The steps of layout

  1. According to the design drawing, draw the expansion drawing at appropriate scale.
  2. On the expansion diagram, draw the center line of the four directions of 0°, 90°, 180° and 270° to determine the positions of all kinds of openings and parts, such as supporting ring and strengthening ring.
  3. According to the existing sheet size plate layout. According to the principle of material arrangement (plate arrangement), the welding seam layout is reasonable, the welding stress is small and the reasonable material is used.

The following figure shows the layout diagram of the vertical container and its barrel. The wall thickness of the simplified body is 8mm.

Barrel layout diagram
Barrel layout diagram

The operation points of marking-off material

Check the grade, specification and surface quality of the material before marking-off.

Achieve reasonable use of materials, as far as possible to improve the utilization rate of materials. If there is no trimming, 30~50mm of trimming should be set aside. According to the thickness of the sheet material, the slot clearance of different sizes of material should be considered, as shown in the table below.

Cutting clearance of marking-off material (mm)

Material sheet thicknessHandbuch
gas cutting
Auto or semi-auto
gas cutting
Handbuch
plasma arc cutting
Auto or semi-auto
plasma arc cutting
<103296
12~3043118
30~50541410
50~65641612
65~135852014
135~2001062416

The figure below shows the cylinder section plate marking-off

Cylinder section plate number making-off
Cylinder section plate number making-off
  • When marking material, the fiber direction of the material rolling should be considered, so that the rolling plate in the processing, the bending direction of the steel plate is consistent with the fiber direction of its rolling, to ensure its strength.
  • For the blank of sheet material, the drawing number, work number, part number, material, specification, quantity and steel number of the product should be indicated, and the inspection line, center line, actual consumption line and planing edge line should be marked.

Method of secondary marking on the head

The head is often assembled with the cylinder section to form a cylinder. However in general, the mouth of the formed head is often different in length and wrinkles. In order to facilitate the assembly of the head and make it meet the requirements of the pattern, it is often necessary to perform secondary marking and cutting to remove the unqualified or The surplus part makes the head and mouth even. This secondary scribing and cutting work is called the net material after the head is formed. There are mainly the following methods for the commonly used clean material after the head is formed.

  • Use the underlined plate number to clean the material, and the operation steps are as follows.
  1. Lay the head on a flat surface and align the head with a pad, as shown in the picture.
Alignment of head
Alignment of head

Figure (a) shows alignment of head with manhole. During operation, the ruler is placed on the long and short axes of the elliptical manhole, and the distance between the ruler and the platform is equal with the cushion block, that is, alignment. Figure (b) shows alignment of manhole head. Put the 90° square on the four corresponding directions of the head, and make the straight edge of the head coincide with the 90° square by means of adding pad block, that is, alignment. The distance from the ruler to the platform is 1/2(a + b).

2. Determine the height of the needle and ensure the head height h, as shown in the figure.

Scribe the cutting line of the head
Scribe the cutting line of the head

3. With the platform as the benchmark, the marking plate is marked along the circumference of the head to obtain the net cutting line of the head.

  • Use a hose level gauge to making-off the material. The following figure shows the schematic diagram of using the hose level to clean the material. The operation steps are as follows.
Marking-off material with hose level gauge
Marking-off material with hose level gauge
  1. Put the head on the platform, align it and pad it firmly.
  2. Determine a point on the outer wall of the head, the distance from the platform is the height of the head, and this point is used as the reference point.
  3. One person holds one end of the hose level, and when the height of the glass tube level is consistent with the height of the reference point, another person holding the other end of the hose level can draw a series of points on the outer wall of the head that are consistent with the reference point.
  4. Connect the points smoothly to obtain the net material cutting line of the head.
  • Verwenden Sie Netzmaterial zum Ausgleichen des Wasserstands. Die Methode zur Verwendung von Wasserstand zum Reinigen von Materialien ist in der folgenden Abbildung dargestellt. Die Betriebsschritte sind wie folgt.
  1. Setzen Sie den Kopf auf die Plattform, richten Sie ihn aus und nivellieren Sie ihn.
  2. Das Innere des Kopfes wird mit Wasser gefüllt und die Höhe der horizontalen Ebene H bestimmt.
  3. Nehmen Sie die horizontale Ebene als Referenz, zeichnen Sie eine Reihe von Punkten an der Innenwand des Kopfes mit einer Höhe gleich der Höhe h des Kopfes und markieren Sie diese Punkte entsprechend an der Außenwand.
  4. Verbinden Sie die Punkte an der Außenwand mit einem Stahllineal, um die Schnittlinie des Netzmaterials des Kopfes zu erhalten. Wenn der Innendurchmesser des Kopfes groß genug ist, können Sie Punkte direkt an der Innenwand des Kopfes verbinden und die Linie schneiden und den Schnitt durchführen.
Wasserstandsausgleichsnetzmaterial
Wasserstandsausgleichsnetzmaterial
  • Verwenden Sie einen rotierenden Reifen, um an einem festen Punkt zu schneiden. In der Mitte des rotierenden Reifens befindet sich eine hohle Nabe, und der untere Teil ist mit dem mechanischen Getriebeteil verbunden. Die Verwendung des Festpunktschneidens des rotierenden Reifens kann die Arbeitseffizienz verbessern und die Arbeitsintensität reduzieren. Die Arbeitsschritte des Festpunktschneidens für rotierende Reifen sind wie folgt.
  1. Setzen Sie den Kopf auf den rotierenden Reifen und richten Sie den Kopf mit dem selbstgebauten großen Winkelstahl-Biegelineal aus, wie in der Abbildung gezeigt.
  2. Befestigen Sie die Schneiddüse an der Halterung, die Höhe entspricht der Nettomaterialhöhe des Kopfes. Schalten Sie vor dem Schneiden zuerst den Reifen ein, um zu prüfen, ob die Position der Schneiddüse für die Schneidqualität geeignet ist.
  3. Zündung schneiden. Beim Schneiden kann die Position der Schneiddüse rechtzeitig angepasst werden, um den richtigen Abstand zum Kopf zu halten.
Festpunktschneiden
Festpunktschneiden

Zeichnen der axialen Mittellinie des Zylinders

Der folgende Zylinderkörper dient als Beispiel, um die Zeichnung der axialen Mittellinie zu veranschaulichen. Es werden hauptsächlich die folgenden häufig verwendet.

  • Die doppelte vertikale Methode ist in Abbildung (a) dargestellt. Stellen Sie zuerst die Halterung so ein, dass sich die Wasserwaage an der Halterung in einer horizontalen Position befindet. Die beiden Drahthämmer werden an beiden Enden der Halterung so aufgehängt, dass sie beide 5mm von der Außenwand des Zylinders entfernt sind oder tangential zur Zylinderwand. Dann auf der Linie der beiden Hammerlinien im 1/2 Abstand der Halterung mit dem Universalvierkant die senkrechte Linie zum Punkt an der Zylinderwand führen. Am anderen Ende des Zylinders verwenden Sie denselben Vorgang, um einen anderen Punkt zu machen. Verbinden Sie schließlich die beiden Punkte mit einem rosafarbenen Linien-Popup, was zu einer Mittellinie führt. Diese Methode ist für den geraden Zylinder von 1000~2000mm geeignet.
  • Wie in Abb. (b) gezeigt, wird ein Strichhammer verwendet, um an das Ende des Zylinders zu hängen, so dass arc abc = arc adc und die umlaufenden Tagundnachtgleichenpunkte an der Zylinderwand erhalten werden. Am anderen Ende machen Sie dasselbe. Verbinden Sie dann die beiden Punkte und ziehen Sie sie mit einer rosa Linie heraus, um die Mittellinie zu erhalten. Dieses Verfahren ist auf eine gewisse Steifigkeit des Zylinders anwendbar, die nicht durch den Durchmesser begrenzt ist.
  • Die Wasserstandsmethode ist wie in Abbildung (c) gezeigt. Die Wasserstandsmethode besteht darin, ein Ende des Glasrohrs der Schlauchwaage auf der linken Seite des Zylinders zu befestigen und das andere Ende des Glasrohrs auf die rechte Seite des Zylinders zu bewegen, um den Bogen schlecht = Bogen bcd zu machen. Als Punkt am anderen Ende des Zylinders bewegt sich das Glasrohr am Punkt B noch nicht. Das Glasrohr am Punkt d sollte auf die linke und rechte Seite des anderen Endes des Zylinders verschoben werden, um die Punkte b 'und d' (in der Abbildung nicht gezeigt) zu erhalten, so dass arc b 'a' d '= arc bcd . Schließlich wird der Punkt mit einer rosa Linie herausgehoben, um die axiale Mittellinie zu erhalten. Dieses Verfahren eignet sich für die Installation und Positionierung von Zylindern mit großem Durchmesser und verschiedenen großen Komponenten.
Drei Arten von Zeichnungsschemata
Drei Arten von Zeichnungsschemata
  • Horizontale quadratische Methode. Wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, wird ein 90°-Quadrat (Libelle) mit Blasen an der Außenwand des Zylinders platziert, um die Blasen zu nivellieren (in der Mitte) und Punkt A wird erhalten. Am anderen Ende des Fasses, wenn Sie dasselbe tun, erhalten Sie einen weiteren Punkt A '(nicht gezeichnet). Schließlich erscheint das Ergebnis mit einer rosa Linie, um die axiale Mittellinie zu erhalten. Dieses Verfahren ist auf das Ritzen von Zylindern mit kleinem Durchmesser und Stahlrohren mit großem Durchmesser anwendbar.
Horizontale quadratische Methode
Horizontale quadratische Methode

Die Methode zum Markieren und Anordnen von Löchern

Das Loch am Bauteil spielt im Allgemeinen eine Rolle bei der Verbindung und Montage zwischen den Bauteilen in den ganzen Teilen, normalerweise ist die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit relativ hoch, wird im Allgemeinen in der Bauteilgruppe Schweißen abgeschlossen, und nach Abschluss der Bauteilmontage, Schweißen, Korrektur. Im Folgenden werden die Verfahren und Schritte zum Markieren von Löchern in mehreren komplexen Komponenten beschrieben.

  • Die Methode zum Markieren von Löchern im Zylinderkörper
  1. Zeichnen Sie die axiale Mittellinie. Die Methode zur Begrenzung der axialen Mittellinie kann je nach spezifischer Situation verwendet werden, um die obige Methode zu wählen, wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, mit der doppelten vertikalen Methode, um die Mittellinie zu erstellen, und dann auf die Mittellinie Ι als Benchmark mit gleicher Bogenlänge um die Mittellinie zu zeichnen, und zeichnen Sie die Mittellinie Ⅱ, Ⅳ.
Zeichnen Sie die axiale Mittellinie
Zeichnen Sie die axiale Mittellinie

2. Zeichnen Sie den Ring zur Referenzlinie. Wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, bestimmen Sie zuerst die Position der Rahmenreferenz auf der Mittellinie der I-Achse bei Punkt A, verwenden Sie eine Anreißlinie, um Punkt A als Mittelpunkt zu nehmen, und verwenden Sie die entsprechende Länge als Radius, um den Mittelpunkt zu zeichnen Linie des Streuschnittpunkts I an den Punkten B und C, und verwenden Sie dann die Punkte B und C als Mittelpunkt des Kreises und zeichnen Sie Bögen mit unterschiedlichen Radien, um eine Anzahl von Schnittpunkten D, E, F und G zu erhalten. Verbinden Sie jeden Schnittpunkt mit eine kreisförmige Bezugslinie erhalten. Verwenden Sie dieselbe Methode, um andere Abschnitte der Rahmenreferenzlinie zu erstellen, und zeichnen Sie schließlich eine vollständige Rahmenreferenzlinie.

Kreisreferenzlinie zeichnen
Kreisreferenzlinie zeichnen

3. Reihenlöcher. Wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, ist die Position des Steckdosenlochs markiert. Beim Anordnen von Löchern ist es erforderlich, die axiale Positionsgröße und die Umfangspositionsgröße des Muffenlochs zu kennen. Umfangspositionsgröße l≈0,01745Ra. Beim Anordnen von Löchern sollte zuerst der Benchmark bestimmt und dann die Größe gemessen werden.

Positionsstandard des Steckdosenlochs
Positionsstandard des Steckdosenlochs
  • Die Methode zum Anreißen und Anordnen von Löchern auf dem Kopf. Unter normalen Umständen werden das Einritzen und Anordnen der Löcher des Kopfes nach der Anzahl der sauberen Materialien durchgeführt, und das Einritzen und Anordnen der Löcher kann gemäß den folgenden Schritten und Verfahren durchgeführt werden.
  1. Making-off-Netzmaterial. Vor der Materialherstellung sollte der Kopf wie in der Abbildung gezeigt ausgerichtet werden.
  2. Zeichnen Sie die Mittellinie. Verwenden Sie die Methode der gleichen Bogenlänge, um 4 Mittellinien zu zeichnen, wie in der Draufsicht in Abbildung (a) gezeigt.
Machen Sie die Mittellinie
Machen Sie die Mittellinie

3. Zeichnen Sie eine Querreferenzlinie. Wie in der Abbildung gezeigt, platzieren Sie das 90°-Quadrat als Referenz auf der Mittellinie von Ι und Ⅲ und bewegen Sie sich langsam auf dem 90°-Quadrat mit der rosa Linie nach unten, um eine Linie auf die Oberfläche des Kopfes zu drucken . Legen Sie auf ähnliche Weise das quadratische Lineal auf die Mittellinie von Ⅱ und Ⅳ und zeichnen Sie eine Linie, um die Querreferenzlinie zu erhalten.

Querverweislinie
Querverweislinie

4. Reihenlöcher. Wie in der Figur gezeigt ist eine schematische Darstellung der Lochreihe. Auf der Plattform werden die obere und untere Mittellinie als Grundlage für die Messung des Abstands nach links verwendet; die linke und rechte Mittellinie dienen als Grundlage, um die Distanz vorwärts in m zu messen. Platzieren Sie das 90°-Quadrat an den markierten m- und n-Punkten. Verwenden Sie die rosa Linie, um das Quadrat zu schließen und bewegen Sie es nach unten, um die Kreuzlinie zu öffnen. Der Schnittpunkt ist die Mitte des Lochs.

Schematische Darstellung der Reihenlöcher
Schematische Darstellung der Reihenlöcher
  • Das Verfahren zum Anreißen und Anordnen von Löchern für Balken. Abbildung (a) zeigt einen Kastenträger, der geritzt und Löcher angeordnet werden muss. Das Anreißen und Anordnen von Löchern kann gemäß den folgenden Schritten und Verfahren durchgeführt werden.
  1. Zeichnen Sie eine Längsmittellinie. Wie in Abbildung (b) gezeigt, verwenden Sie ein 90°-Quadrat an einem Ende des Balkens, wobei die obere (untere) Abdeckung als Referenz verwendet wird, ziehen Sie eine Seite des Quadrats gegen die Innenseite des Stegs und zeichnen Sie die verbleibenden Linien in in der gleichen Weise. Nehmen Sie dann die Punkte a und b bei 1/2 des Abstands zwischen den beiden Linien. Mit der gleichen Methode erhalten Sie die Mittelpunkte a' und b' am anderen Ende des Balkens (in der Abbildung nicht gezeigt). Schließlich erscheint eine gerade Linie zwischen den Punkten a und a'(b und b'), die die obere (untere) Mittellinie (Längsmittellinie) ist.
  2. Zeichnen Sie eine horizontale Mittellinie. Bestimmen Sie den horizontalen Bezugspunkt A auf der oberen Mittellinie und kreuzen Sie Punkt A, damit eine Seite des 90°-Quadrats mit der oberen Mittellinie übereinstimmt, zeichnen Sie Punkt B (B′) entlang der anderen Seite und passieren Sie dann B (B ′) Punkt, und zeichnen Sie mit einem 90°-Quadrat Punkt C, D (D'), verbinden Sie BD (B'D') und DD' (untere Abdeckung), wie in Abbildung (c) gezeigt.
  3. Reihenlöcher. Wie in Abbildung (c) gezeigt, sollte die Messung der vertikalen Dimension auf der horizontalen Mittellinie basieren; die Messung der horizontalen Dimension sollte auf der vertikalen Mittellinie basieren.
Anreiß- und Reihenlochmethode
Anreiß- und Reihenlochmethode

Ein Gedanke zu „Ultimate Guide to Loft Sheet Metal

  1. Vitaliy Nosovets sagt:

    das ist sehr nützlich für mich
    danke für deinen anteil

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